Electric Cars: Features and Technical Characteristics

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Electric cars have been identified as being a crucial innovation in minimizing future emissions and energy consumption in the automobile sector. The emphasis of this short article is to assess as well as assess the electrical automobile efficiency as well as several technical features.


An electrical vehicle (EV) operates on an electrical motor, as opposed to an internal-combustion engine that generates power by using fossil fuels or hydrocarbon-like gases. Consequently, such a vehicle is seen as a feasible replacement for the current-generation vehicle, to address the issue of rising contamination, worldwide warming, depleting natural sources, and so on. Though the principle of electric automobiles has been around for a very long time, it has drawn a significant amount of attention in the past decade amid a rising carbon footprint and other environmental influences of fossil fuel-based automobiles.

Electric cars operate all functions using electrical energy. An electric vehicle is powered by an electric motor as opposed to typical gasoline or diesel engine. Unlike traditional cars that use natural gas and processed or diesel-powered engine, electric automobiles and vehicles make use of an electric motor powered by power from batteries or a fuel cell.

Just as there is a wide range of innovations available in standard vehicles, plug-in electric cars (likewise referred to as electric cars and trucks or EVs) have various abilities that can fit different chauffeurs’ requirements. A major feature of EVs is that drivers can plug them in to charge from an off-board electric power source. This identifies them from crossbreed electric automobiles, which supplement an inner combustion engine with battery-driven power but cannot be plugged in.

As a whole, there are various types of EVs – All-electric vehicles (AEVs) and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are most common. AEVs contain Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). In addition to charging from the electrical grid, both types are charged in part by regenerative braking, which generates electricity from some of the energy normally lost when braking.

The background story of Electric Car


At the beginning of the car’s invention background, two main competing approaches to engine-driven vehicles existed –

  • Internal combustion engine (ICE)
  • Electric drivetrain

In the year of 1834, the American inventor Thomas Davenport made the first electric car. The first ICEV was industrialized in 1886 by Benz and Daimler in Germany. Around the year 1900, electric cars had a substantial share of all engine-driven vehicles. Together, F. Porsche already designed a hybrid electric car furnished with an ICE range extender and wheel hub electric engines. The two different drive trains were competing until Henry Ford, in 1908, chose an ICEV for the first mass production of automobiles in history. This way, ICEV won the race early in the twentieth century and displaced the battery electric vehicles (BEV). From an environmental point of view, this might have been one of the largest blunders in the history of innovation

Electric Car Features

Electric automobiles are quiet, comfortable, and also exciting. The electrical motor is smaller than an inner combustion engine translating right into spacious insides as well as a serene drive. Torque, or pulling power, is promptly available, top speeds surpass legal limits and there are no gears to grind. All-electric automobiles are automated and also consist of the comforts one anticipates in cozy cars, air conditioning, phone charger as well as Bluetooth connection also music or video players as well.

current-ev station

The key features of electric cars are –

  • No tailpipe emissions, so are better for the planet.
  • A smoother drive than petrol cars.
  • Cheaper to run.
  • No need for much maintenance, as they have fewer moving parts.

What are the Primary Components of an Electric Car?

Electric cars are becoming popular in the current time because of frequent fuel problems. As a matter of fact, about 250,000 electric hybrid automobiles are being open annually given that 2007.

Electric cars are identified to be very efficient and reliable and also, they consume much less power making them environmentally friendly cars. However, have you ever noticed what the elements of an electric-powered car’s engine are, as well as just how they work…? Let’s discuss the primary components of electric cars-

An electric-powered car consists of three basic components. The electrical engine, motor controller, and battery are the main parts.


The electric car’s battery can be charged through the use of ordinary grid electricity at a particular power station. However other than the conventional lithium-ion battery technologies, there are additionally other major battery technologies that can be utilized for electrical automobiles.

battery of the EVS
  • Lithium-Ion Batteries: This battery innovation gives additional efficiency as well as range. However, it also brings the highest cost. Lithium-ion batteries are lighter than Lead-acid and also Nickel steel. These are likewise the batteries utilized in electronic video cameras and smart devices.
  • Lead Acid Batteries: This battery technology is the most general. It is also the cheapest among the existing battery technologies. One major advantage is it’s 97% recyclable.
  • Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries: This battery technology offers higher output and healthier performance but it costs much more than lead-acid batteries.
  • Solid-State Batteries – It’s an ongoing development process. It differs from all existing battery technology. Giant companies R&D, Universities researches all together are working for commercially available solid-state batteries.

Motor Controller

The motor controller of an electric automobile provides its total operation as well as the circulation of its power at any kind of given moment. It works as a floodgate between the electric motor and batteries. It assists to check and manages all essential performance signs such as the car’s operator, motor, battery, and also accelerator pedal. It has a microprocessor that can limit or reroute current. It is made use to either enhance the mechanical efficiency of the cars and trucks or fit the driver’s driving style. There are likewise extra sophisticated controllers which are capable of better precision as well as greater efficiency.

Electric Engine

Contrasting a fuel-burned engine with great deals of moving parts, an electrical engine or motor only has one moving part. This makes it an extremely reliable source of motive power. Selecting an electric engine relies on the cars and truck’s system voltage. They can be structured to use either AC-DC electric power. AC motors are cheaper and lighter compared to DC engines. They are additionally much more typical as well as they often tend to deal with less mechanical damage. Nonetheless, AC technological innovation needs a much more advanced or sophisticated electric motor controller.

MOTOR of the EVS

Other Components of an Electric Car

In addition to the basic components of electric cars and truck, it is also made up of various other parts which are necessary also for a better car controlling system –

Regenerative Braking – As the electric vehicle runs, the electric motor produces a forward momentum as well as it can be made use of to charge the batteries when you use the brakes, which is frequently referred to as a regenerative braking system. It can recoup approximately about 15% of used power for acceleration. Though this component is undoubtedly reliable, it cannot generate sufficient to fully charge an electric vehicle.

Drive System – The feature of the drive system is to move power to the traction wheels, generating movement. An electrical vehicle does not require a conventional transmission. Nonetheless, it has several interior configurations depending on the components in operation. For example, some layouts use several smaller-sized motors that power each wheel separately. Big electrical motors, on the other hand, maybe coupled to the rear wheels making use of a differential housing.

The components of electrically powered vehicles are much simpler contrasted to the components of gasoline or petrol-powered vehicle engine. Nonetheless, electric cars and trucks cannot go as quickly as petrol-powered automobiles can. Electric automobiles, on the other hand, can reduce energy consumption in various ways like immediately turning the engine off when the car is rest.

Different Types of Electric Cars and How They Work

Electric cars work by plugging into a charge point and storing electricity from the grid to its battery. They store the electric power in rechargeable batteries that power an electric motor, which turns the wheels. Electric cars accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines – so they feel lighter to drive.

Electric vehicles originated in three types and they are classed by the degree that electricity is used as their energy source. There are a few different types of electric vehicles (EV). Some run purely on electricity, these are called pure electric vehicles. And some can also be run on petrol or diesel, these are called hybrid electric vehicles.

Battery Electric Vehicles or BEV

BEVs are fully electric with rechargeable batteries and do not have a gasoline engine. It stores electricity onboard with high-capacity battery packs. Battery power is used to run the electric motor of the vehicle and as well as all onboard electronics. BEV does not emit bad emissions and hazards, unlike old-style gasoline-powered cars. They are charged with electricity from an external source.

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles or PHEV

PHEV is also known as Extended-Range Electric Vehicles and it is powered by both petrol and electricity. Its battery can be recharged through both regenerative braking and “plugging in” to an external source of electrical power. PHEV can go 10 to 40 miles before its gas engine delivers assistance, unlike standard hybrids which can only go about 1 to 2 miles before the gasoline engine turns on.

Hybrid Electric Vehicles or HEV

This type of electric car is also powered by petrol and electricity. Its electric energy is produced by its own braking system to recharge the battery. That process is called “regenerative braking”. Electric motor supports slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy typically converted to heat energy by the brakes. It starts off using the electric motor and then the gasoline cuts in as load or speed arises. The two motors of a hybrid electric vehicle are controlled by an internal computer, guaranteeing the best economy for the driving situations.

Difference between a Hybrid Vehicle and an Electric Vehicle

Some people incline to use the term Hybrid Vehicle and Electric Vehicle interchangeably which is not the case. Both have an entirely different meaning. To put it in lay mans terms if the vehicle runs both on Electricity and gas then it is a hybrid vehicle, if it runs only on Electricity and cannot run on gas then it is called an Electric Vehicle.

EVs and Hybrids have their self-meaning, A hybrid car can instruct the disadvantages of EV like fuel time, short travel range, etc. but since it has the hardware for both ICE and EV these cars are expensive. Hybrid cars are typically intended to increase a Car’s efficiency by leveraging a Motor to run the car at low speeds.

How does charging work?

Individuals can recharge an electrical car by connecting it to a public charging terminal or into a self-charging system (in-home). There’s a lot of charging terminals around the U.S.A. as well as the UK to stay 100% charged while you’re out and around. Yet to get the most effective deal for a home charging system, it is essential to get the best EV power tariff, so one can invest much less money in charging cars as well as conserve extra on the power expense. There are three sorts of battery chargers:

car charging

Three-pin plug – One can connect to any 13-amp socket.

Socketed – Where one can connect either a Type 1 or Type 2 cable.

Tethered – Cable attached with either a Type 1 or Type 2 connector

There are also three EV charging in term of charging speeds:

Slow Charging – Characteristically rated up to 3kW. Frequently used to charge overnight or at the workplace. Charging time varied between 8-10 hours.

Fast Charging- Classically rated at either 7Kw or 22kW. Can be located in car parks, supermarkets, leisure centers, and houses with an off-street parking platform. Charging time varied between 3-4 hours.

Rapid Charging- It rated from 43 kW. Only compatible with EVs that have the rapid charging capability. Charging time varied between 30-60 minutes only.

What’s their range like?

How far you can take a trip on a  fully charged car. Each design has a different range, battery dimension, and also performance. The perfect electrical vehicle for you will certainly be the one you can use for your typical trips without having to stop as well as charge up midway.

All-electric vehicles (AEVs) run only on electric power. Most have all-electric series of 80 to 100 miles, while a few high-end models have a range of approximately 250 miles. When the battery is diminished, it can take from half an hour (with quick charging) approximately nearly a complete day (with Level 1 charging) to reenergize it, depending upon the sort of charger and also battery.


If this range is not sufficient, a plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) might be a much better option. PHEVs operate on power for much shorter arrays (6 to 40 miles), then switch over to an internal combustion engine running on gasoline when the battery is depleted. The versatility of PHEVs allows vehicle drivers to use electrical power as commonly as possible while also being able to fuel up with fuel if needed. Powering the vehicle with electricity from the grid decreases fuel expenses, cuts petroleum intake, as well as reduces tailpipe emissions compared with conventional vehicles. When driving distances are longer than the all-electric variation, PHEVs act like hybrid electric vehicles, consuming less fuel and producing fewer emissions than similar conventional vehicles. Depending on the model, the internal combustion engine may also power the vehicle at other times, such as during rapid acceleration or when using heating or air conditioning. PHEVs could also usage hydrogen in a fuel cell, biofuels, or other alternative fuels as a back-up instead of gasoline.

How safe are electric cars?

EVs are determined by the same security standards as basic vehicles, as well as lots of have the highest 5-star rankings. There have been (extremely unusual) reports of lithium-ion batteries igniting as well as exploding, however, extra safety measures are mounted to ensure this cannot occur. These include merges as well as a breaker, plus coolant go through battery packs to maintain them at a reduced temperature level.

Fans of existing fuel-burned-based vehicles say that chemicals in electrical cars and truck batteries will catch fire in case of a collision. Nonetheless, a tank full of gasoline has to do with as flammable as you can get. This is why some people think electrical cars and trucks are in reality the much safer option.

But there can be some downsides of EVs –

  • Can have a comparatively limited range
  • Depending on the car and the charger, it can take a long charging time.
  • Batteries may need replacement after 5-10 years to retain efficiency.
  • Lack of charging point nearby.

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