Power systems are undergoing significant changes in operational requirements that result from the sector restructure and evolution. Vastly interconnected network, distributed and renewable generation leads to more complex and less secure power system operation. Energy storage system seems to be helpful to utilities since it can decouple the instantaneous balancing between demand and supply. Therefore, it allows increased asset utilization, facilitates the penetration of renewable sources, and improves the grid’s flexibility, reliability, and efficiency.
Electrical energy storage system plays three core roles—
- Lowering the Electricity Supply Costs by Storing Energy at Off-Peak Rates,
- Improve Reliability at Times of Unexpected Failures or Disasters, And
- Maintain and Improve Power Quality (Frequency and Voltage stability)
There are several high-performance storage technologies available today, or at an advanced development stage, which allows a new variety of storage applications. For example, the problems related to the growing integration of renewable sources in power systems have been among the main drivers of this development.
Energy storage devices store energy in various forms such as electrochemical, kinetic, pressure, potential, electromagnetic, chemical, and thermal, using fuel cells, batteries, capacitors, and flywheels compressed air, pumped hydro, super magnets, hydrogen, etc.
Opportunities for renewable energy as a measure to solve global warming and energy resource shortage are increasing. However, concerns over the un-stabilization of power grids are growing. The volume of wind power and solar PV energy sources—the generating capacity of which fluctuates intensely—increases and stabilizes the electrical power grid, becoming a significant issue. Besides, experiences of long-term shutdowns and following electricity absences and restrictions after the Great East Japan Natural disasters have increased awareness of the necessity for power source decentralization and sophisticated energy management system for a more stable electric power stream and proper energy conservation. Electrical energy-storing structures are likely to increase their essential roles as key facilities to solve the above issues. In this paper, products and technologies of four electrical energy storage devices & systems contributing to energy storage systems and energy conservation of various types of energy managing equipment are overviewed.
Electric power storage devices provide valuable benefits to improve stability, power quality, and reliability of supply. Storage technologies have developed significantly to encounter the challenges of real-world power supply arrangements. The storage systems can be classified into short and long-term responses, reliant on their application area. Technologies with high power density and with the ability to respond to the requests in short time fractions like flywheels, capacitors, or superconducting magnetic coils belong to the so-called short-term response energy storage devices category. Energy storage devices can absorb and supply electrical energy for long periods of time like pumped hydro, batteries, compressed air, and hydrogen fuel cells are considered in the long-term response category.
An energy storage device is a device used to store electric energy when needed and release it when essential. As a measure to defend global warming problems, energy storage device technology in fields such as renewable energy generation and hybrid automobile systems will become an increasingly important aspect.
There are many different ways of storing electrical energy, each with its strengths and weaknesses. The list below focuses on Batteries related technologies that can currently provide small to large storage capacities
There are several forms of battery technology, including lithium-ion, flow, lead-acid, and others designed to meet some of the specific necessities.
Lithium-ion batteries primarily used for consumer products, a series of applications counting residential systems and industry level that can store power in MWh unit and can make backup the entire electric grid. These systems naturally need a huge number of batteries and devices together on a holder.
Several types of batteries have experienced a lot of press for their speedy costs declining, due to the rising popularity of EV (electric vehicles), IoT and some mobility of power consumed tools and pieces of machinery.
Different kinds of batteries are used for storing and providing power when required, this process is obtained by two chemical reagents reactions that are liquified in liquids and stored in tanks. These are well matched for longer duration storage capacity.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) Batteries
Lithium-ion batteries were formerly used primarily for small-scale consumer items such as cellphones produced by Sony. Lately, Lithium-ion has been designed for larger-scale battery storage capacity. Bloomberg New Energy Finance forecasts that lithium-ion batteries will cost less than $100 kWh by 2025.
Li-ion batteries are by far the most widespread battery storage choice today and are consuming more than 90% of the global grid battery storage market. Compared to other battery options, lithium-ion batteries have high energy density and are lightweight. New innovations, such as replacing graphite with silicon to increase the battery’s power capacity, are seeking to make lithium-ion batteries even more competitive for longer-term storage.
Additionally, lithium-ion batteries are now frequently used in developing countries for rural electrification. In rural communities, lithium-ion batteries are paired with solar panels to allow households and businesses to use limited amounts of electricity to charge cell phones, run appliances, and light buildings. Previously, such communities had to rely on dirty and expensive diesel generators or did not have access to electricity.
Advantages of Li-ion Battery
- High energy density and higher capacities.
- Relatively low self-discharge periods batteries.
- Low Maintenance
- High current for power tools applications.
The Lithium-Polymer (LiPo) Batteries
The lithium-polymer separates itself from it origin battery structures in term of electrolyte used. This electrolyte resembles a plastic-like film that does not react to electricity but permits ion’s movement (electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms). The polymer electrolyte substitutes the traditional porous separator, which is soaked with electrolyte.
Lithium polymer battery introduced in the marketing and product descriptions for a variety of lithium-ion battery alternatives. Some power bank batteries use lithium polymer, which makes some differences between the more conventional lithium-ion and the more niche lithium polymer batteries.
Advantages of LiPo battery–
- Low manufacturing cost
- Vey slim outline structures
- Low weight
- Variety of shapes and outlines
- Higher energy density in WH/kg
Lithium polymer batteries offer some advantages over the more traditional lithium-ion battery technologies. In most respects, the polymer version of a battery gives a slight improvement in performance, but also the cost is slightly more.
Lead-acid batteries were among the first battery technologies used in energy storage. Though, they are not relevant for grid storage because of their low-energy density and short cycle, and calendar life.
Lead-acid batteries are frequently found in man motor vehicles, power backup systems, and other electrical applications where a rechargeable battery is mandatory. Lead-acid batteries are usually reliable for daily use; however, these batteries do have their shortcomings.
Lead-acid Batteries advantages –
- Inexpensive production
- Mature, reliable, and well-understood technology
- Lowest self-discharge among the rechargeable batteries
- Capable of high discharge rates.
Flow batteries are a substitute for lithium-ion batteries. While less common than lithium-ion batteries—flow batteries make up less than 5% of the battery market —flow batteries have been utilized in many energy storage plans that need longer energy storage periods. Flow batteries have moderately low energy densities and have long charging cycles, which makes them well-suited for supplying continuous power.
A flow battery is a fully rechargeable device where fluids containing the active materials are pumped through a cell, promoting reduction/oxidation on both sides of an ion-exchange membrane, resulting in electrical potential. In a battery without the bulk flow of the electrolyte, the electro-active material is stored internally in the electrodes.
Flow Batteries advantages –
- Long service life
- No standby loss
- Low maintenance
- Recyclability & Safety
Solid-state batteries have numerous benefits over lithium-ion and other types of batteries in the comprehensive grid storage system. Solid-state batteries hold solid electrolytes, having higher energy densities, and are much less disposed to fires than existing liquid electrolytes types batteries, for example, lithium-ion batteries and other fire unprotected types. Their slighter volumes and higher safety make solid-state batteries well matched for a big-scale grid.
Nevertheless, solid-state battery expertise is currently more expensive compare to lithium-ion or led acid batteries. Fast-growing lithium-ion production has led to economies of scale, which solid-state batteries will find hard to match in the future. But, the cost of Solid-state batteries will be decreased over time.
- Faster charging (6x faster)
- 2x Increased energy density
- Increased cycle life
- Nano Amps level leakage currents
Solid-state battery market pouring forces include response to IoT, EV making business inflection by delivering technology that cares entirely new capabilities is a market benefit. Most of the sensor networks are forming demand for solid-state devices. Vendors higher revenue and almost tripled production volume from the first quarter. Multiple customers are moving into production with innovative products after successful trials.