Integrated circuit (IC) is the most significant technological development of the 21st century if I may say. It has forever transformed the world of electronics. It has reduced the size of electronics from a refrigerator-size to palm-size electronics or even less.
Integrated circuit (IC)
An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which a thousand or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. An IC can be a function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor. An exact IC is categorized as either linear (analog) or digital depending on its future application. Integrated circuits distorted all that. The fundamental idea was to obtain a complete circuit, with lots of components and the connections between them, and reconstruct the whole thing in a microscopically tiny form on the surface of a piece of silicon. It was an incredibly clever idea and it has made possible all kinds of “microelectronic” gadgets ranging from digital watches and pocket calculators to Moon-landing rockets and arms with built-in satellite navigation.
Normally bipolar junction transistors, diodes and field-effect transistors are commonly used electronics components in an electronic circuit. These components are interconnected along with required resistors and capacitors to form an electronic circuit. This type of circuit is known as a discrete circuit as each of the components can be separated from the circuit when required. Nowadays there is a new trend of producing electronic circuits where on a semiconductor wafer numbers of diodes, transistors, and capacitors are permanently fabricated.
As the components in this type of electronic circuit are not separable that is integrated on the semiconductor wafer, this circuit is commonly referred to as an Integrated Circuit. IC is also popularly known as chip or microchip.
Integrated Circuits are defined as the circuit that comprises elements that are inseparable and interconnected electrically in such a way that the IC cannot be separated for the reason of commerce and construction. Myriad technologies can be used to build such a circuit. Today what we call an IC, was originally known as a monolithic integrated circuit. It is believed that Kilby created the first working IC back in 1958 and he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his hard work. The first buyer for this invention was the US Air Force.
The number of transistors that we have been able to fit into an IC has rapidly increased since their creation, doubling approximately every 2 years. This phenomenon is known as Moore’s Law and is often cited as an explanation for the exponential growth of technology over the last 50 years.
An IC consists of interconnected transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes, etc. These components are interconnected with an external connecting terminal contained in a small package.
Below is the classification of different types of ICs basis on their chip size.
- SSI: Small scale integration. 3 – 30 gates per chip.
- MSI: Medium scale integration. 30 – 300 gates per chip.
- LSI: Large scale integration. 300 – 3,000 gates per chip.
- VLSI: Very large-scale integration. More than 3,000 gates per chip.
Based on the method or techniques used in manufacturing them, types of ICs can be–
- Thin and thick film ICs
- Monolithic ICs
- Hybrid or multichip ICs
Thin and Thick ICs:
In thin or thick film ICs, passive components such as resistors, capacitors are integrated but the diodes and transistors are connected as separate components to form a single and complete circuit. Thin and thick ICs that are produced commercially are merely the combination of integrated and discrete (separate) components.
Thick and thin ICs have similar characteristics, similar appearance except for the method of film deposition. Method of deposition of films distinguished Thin ICs from Thick ICs.
In monolithic ICs, the discrete components, the active and the passive and also the interconnections between then are formed on a silicon chip. The word monolithic is actually derived from two Greek words “mono” meaning one or single and Lithos meaning stone. Thus, a monolithic circuit is a circuit that is built into a single crystal.
Monolithic ICs are the most common types ICs in use today. Its cost of production is cheap and is reliable. Commercially manufactured ICs are used as amplifiers, voltage regulators, in AM receivers, and in computer circuits. However, despite all these advantages and vast fields of application of monolithic ICs, it has limitations. The insulation between the components of monolithic ICs is poor. It also has a low power rating; fabrication of insulators is not that possible and so many other factors.
Hybrid or Multi-chip ICs
As the name implies, “Multi”, more than one individual chip is interconnected. The active components that are contained in this kind of ICs are diffused transistors or diodes. The passive components are the diffused resistors or capacitors on a single chip.
These components are connected by metalized patterns. Hybrid ICs are widely used for high power-amplifier applications from 5W to more than 50W. Its performance is better than that of monolithic ICs.
Types of Integrated Circuits
The different types of an integrated circuit which includes the following
Digital Integrated Circuits
The logic Gates, such as AND gate, OR gate, NAND gate, XOR gate, flip flops, counters; microprocessors are some well-known examples of digital ICs. This kind of IC has two defined levels:1’s and 0’s which implies that they work on binary mathematics wherein 1 stands for on and 0 stands for off. Such ICs are accomplished diligently as they contain more than millions of flip flops, logic gates, and whatnot, all incorporated into a single chip. Examples of digital IC include microcontrollers and microprocessors.
- Logic ICs
- Memory Chips,
- Interface ICs (level shifters, serializer/de-serializer, etc.)
- Power Management ICs
- Programmable Devices
Analog Integrated Circuits
Op-amps, voltage regulators, comparators, timers NE 555, and Sensors are also well-known examples of linear ICs or analog ICs. In this type of ICs, the input and output signals are continuous. The output signal level depends upon the input signal level and the output signal level is a linear function of the input signal level. Linear ICs or analog ICs are most commonly used as audio frequency amplifier and radio frequency amplifier
The analog integrated circuits work by tackling continuous signals and is capable of performing tasks such as filtering, amplification, demodulation, and modulation, etc. Sensors, OP-AMP’s are essentially Analog ICs.
- Linear ICs
- RF ICs
When the digital and analog ICs are used on a single chip; the resultant IC is known as mixed-signal integrated circuits.
- Data Acquisition ICs (including A/D converters, D/A converter, digital potentiometers)
- Clock/timing ICs
Uses of Integrated Circuits
The integrated circuit uses a semiconductor material (read chips) as the working table and frequently silicon is selected for the task. Afterward, electrical components such as diodes, transistors, and resistors, etc. are added to this chip in minimized form. Electrical components are joined together in such a way that they are able to carry out multiple tasks and calculations. The silicon is known as a wafer in this assembly.
Applications of Integrated Circuits
ICs have advantages over those that are made by interconnecting discrete components some of which are their small size. It is a thousand times smaller than the discrete circuits. It is an all in one (components and the interconnections are on a single silicon chip). It has little weight.
Its cost of production is also low. It is reliable because there are no soldered joints. ICs consume little energy and can easily be replaced when the need arises. It can be operated at a very high temperature. different types of ICs are widely applied in our electrical devices such as high-power amplifiers, voltage regulators, TV receivers and computers, etc.
The applications of an ICs include the following
- Juice Makers
- Video Processors
- Audio Amplifiers
- Memory Devices
- Logic Devices
- Radio Frequency Encoders and Decoders
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Gallon Electric help you by ensuring you have high quality and original Integrated circuit for the next project.
Gallon Electric offers a variety of ICs to customers. Gallon Electric can be your trusted supplier for Integrated Circuits because of its best price & quality and we are also committed to ensuring better technical support for you There are various types of IC which is very important for different applications like,
An amplifier is used to raise the amplitude of a signal waveform, without altering other specifications of the waveform such as frequency or waveform. They are one of the most commonly utilized circuits in electronics as well as carry out a range of features in several digital systems.
Amplifiers are used to increase the amplitude of a voltage or current or to increase the amount of power available generally from an AC signal.
Whatever the task, there are three categories of amplifier that relate to the properties of their output;
- Voltage amplifiers.
- Current amplifiers.
- Power amplifiers.
The function of a voltage amplifier is to make the amplitude of the output voltage waveform greater than that of the input voltage waveform (although the amplitude of the output current may be greater or smaller than that of the input current, this adjustment is lesser for the amplifier’s designed objective ).
The objective of a current amplifier is to make the amplitude of the output current waveform above that of the input current waveform (although the amplitude of the output voltage may be greater or smaller than that of the input voltage, this adjustment is lesser for the amplifier´s designed function)
In a power amplifier, the item of voltage and also current (i.e., power = voltage x current) at the output is above the product of voltage x current at the input. Keep in mind that either voltage or current may be less at the output than at the input. It is the item of both that is substantially increased.
In electronic devices, a driver is a circuit or part made use of to regulate another circuit or part, such as a high-power transistor, liquid crystal screen (LCD), as well as many others.
They are generally utilized to regulate the current flowing via a circuit or to control other variables such as other elements, some devices in the circuit. The term is frequently utilized, as an example, for a specialized integrated circuit that controls high-power switches in switched-mode power converters. An amplifier can additionally be thought about a driver for loudspeakers or a voltage regulator that maintains a connected part operating within a broad variety of input voltages.
Memory technology has no impact on the logical procedure of a tool. Because of the various processing actions called for, some electrical characteristics (EC) might range devices with the same attribute set/pinout but with different memory innovations. An instance is that the VIL (Input Low Voltage) might have some distinction between typical EPROM gadgets. Also, each gadget has a selection of frequency ranges and also packaging options relying on the application and also manufacturing demands. When going over the performance of the device, the memory innovation, and the voltage range do not matter. The major programmable memory types are PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, ROM, and also Flash-type memory. NAND, eMMC as well as UFS gadgets are utilized where high memory density is required
Power management IC
Power management integrated circuits (power management ICs or PMICs or PMU as units) are integrated circuits for power management. Although PMIC refers to a wide range of chips (or components in system-on-a-chip devices), a lot of includes a number of DC/DC converters or their control component. A PMIC is typically included in battery-operated devices such as mobile phones and portable media players to decrease the quantity of space needed.
The term PMIC refers to a class of integrated circuits that perform various functions related to power requirements. A PMIC may have one or more of the following functions:
- DC to DC conversion
- Battery charging
- Power-source selection
- Voltage scaling
- Power sequencing
- Miscellaneous functions
Interface Integrated Circuits
Interface ICs give full digital interface circuit functions in a single chip which raises reliability while offering considerable savings in layout effort, style size, and price. Interface devices regulate as well as handle signal interactions in between diverse electronic systems.
IC interfaces support many different types of serial and wireless technologies.
- Serial technologies for IC interfaces include RS232, RS422, and RS485; serial 1-wire, serial 2-wire, and serial 3-wire; controller area network bus (CANbus); serial peripheral interface (SPI); system management bus (SMBus); universal serial bus (USB); and USB on-the-go (USB OTG) or USB 2.0.
- Wireless technologies for IC interfaces include code division multiple access (CDMA), wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA), wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) or IEEE 802.11, worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) or IEEE 802.16, wireless mesh (Wi-Mesh), and ZigBee or IEEE 802.15.4. Bluetooth chips also provide wireless connectivity in solution-on-chip (SoC) platforms that power short-range radio communication applications.
- Wireless IC interfaces are also described as using 3G or 4G technologies.
- 3G (third-generation) technologies for IC interfaces include universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS), enhanced data rates for global evolution (EDGE), and global system for global communication (GSM).
- 4G (fourth generation) products are based solely on packet switching, whereas 3G is based on a combination of circuit and packet switching.
IC interfaces also support other communications technologies. Choices include current mode logic (CML), gunning transceiver logic (GTL), and gunning transceiver logic plus (GTLP); emitter coupling logic (ECL), positive ECL (PECL), and low-voltage PECL (LVPEC); low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), bus LVDS (BLVDS), and multi-point LVDS (M-LVDS); digital visual interface (DVI) and high-definition media interface (HDMI); and digital subscriber line (DSL) and integrated services digital network (ISDN)
Others Type of IC
- Filter IC
- Logic, Switch IC
- Clock, Timer & Counter IC
- Data Converter IC
- Digital Potentiometer IC
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Gallon Electric can be your trusted supplier for Integrated circuits and devices buying because of its best price & quality and we are also committed to ensuring better technical support for you. Gallon Electric commits to quality products, high service, and timely delivery to our customers.